Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Barilla Case ____________________________________________________________ ______________ Overview of Barilla Barilla appears to be in a commodity industry, suggesting flat demand. Barilla positions themselves as the branded, premium, dry pasta. Their order qualifiers are consistency and quality, and their order winners are brand recognition and variety in shapes. In fact their product line is extensive Ã¢â¬â 800 products. However, Barilla faces demand fluctuations that strain their supply chain operations and making it difficult to anticipate product demand. Barilla proposes a Just in Time Delivery system to help improve margins. Our overall recommendation is that a JITD delivery system is premature, and instead we recommend building a new information management system to resolve the information bottleneck between customer and the manufacturer and align incentives at each stage in the supply chain to reduce inventories. Only then can a JITD delivery system be properly evaluated. The Impact of Fluctuating Demand on Operations Fluctuating customer demand results in higher inventory for distributors who carry a cross-section of product lines, as demand among product lines fluctuates in unpredictable ways. Certain lines will stock out, while other inventory will merely sit. Thus the sitting inventory creates higher carrying costs. Unanticipated demand will result in higher stock without sufficient information to forecast demand. This is a mismatch in inventory allocation, and a information-transmission issue. Since the manufacturer cannot anticipate which lines will be in greatest demand, lead time is increased, as the manufacturer cannot tailor production to the increased demand until determining which line to produce. These lead times essentially result in a whip-lash effect, in which the factories over-react to stock outs. This results in higher inventory and higher costs. These higher inventory costs contribute to the lower margins and stock outs impair BarillaÃ¢â¬â¢s brand equity as a premium brand Ã¢â¬â a premium brand should not have empty shelf space. The causes of the fluctuating demand The underlying causes include customer demand, customer price sensitivity, some seasonality, the manner and duration of the promotions, the lack of sufficient information to anticipate demand, and the fragmented information stream from small shops. Customer demand is not well recorded. Though pasta volume tends to be steady other than some seasonality, demand among varieties is uncertain, and this flows up the supply chain. Furthermore, the extensive product offerings make it difficult to determine if certain lines are purchased as a substitute for others. One aspect of this uncertainty is the fragmented information stream that results from the many small shops, each conducting inventory at different times, with few incentives to pass information upstream except when they decide to place a new order. This lack of real-time info about customer demand other than periodic orders is a large barrier to accurate forecasting. The promotion structure may be exacerbating the demand problems. We do not know the windows of promotions, but narrow promotion windows should increase ability to forecast demand, suggesting that they do not use promotions that are narrow enough to predict demand. Internal and External Barriers to Implementation of JITD First of all, there is an information bottleneck just past the customer, and the information relating to amount and timing of demand does not flow directly up the Supply Chain. Instead Shops, Distributors and BarillaÃ¢â¬â¢s Factories are forced to use existing orders to inform their supply decisions. BarillaÃ¢â¬â¢s Long lead time 10 days combined with distributors reviewing inventory levels once a week, does not allow orders to catch up with the demand. This will make the accurate forecasting that Barilla needs to perform JITD very difficult. Distributors distrust giving Barilla info. Barilla has inadequately explained toe potential costs savings that could result from reducing inventory. Distributors also fear that they will lose the volume discounts they currently receive if the JITD system results in smaller batches. Externally there are concerns that greater dependence on Barilla due to a smaller inventory would place them at risk of supply chain interruption. Our recommendations to deal with the barriers to implementation Barilla could vertically integrate, buying the distributors, and centralizing shipment information. Alternatively, we think that incentives could be aligned better to promote the free flow of information up the supply chain and reassure distributors regarding discounts. To reassure distributors, we would recommend basing discounts not on individual shipment size, but monthly volume, so that they would, on average, receive the same discounts under JITD. Also, Barilla should use promotions with short terms to create set periodic demand for promoted products. Rewards should be established as incentives to distributors and retailers to better document sales volume. This could invest in electronic barcode readers and tracking technology. Similarly, Distributors should be educated about the specific gains that they could realize by assisting Barilla to produce more efficiently, including improved margins and reduced lead times. With accurate delivery, retailers only need to maintain minimum amount of inventory and thus reduce the inventory management cost. Good incentives will produce good information. Accordingly, we recommend, building a new information management system that better gauges distributor and retailer statistics to provide accurate customer demand. Only when demand can be forecast can a JITD systemÃ¢â¬â¢s efficiency be properly evaluated.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
To what extent did Russia undergo economic and political reform in the years 1906-14? After the 1905 revolution Russia was in need of reforms both economically and politically, to allow it maintain its role of a great power and to prevent another revolution occurring the answer to this was the October Manifesto. However, due to the stubbornness of the Tsar who was determined not to relinquish his autocratic powers, what may have appeared as reforms were largely superficial making little change in particular to the Russian political system. In early 1906 the OctoberManifesto was published as a result of the 1905 revolution and as a way to appease the peasants and appear as a revolutionary change, when truly very little was changed by this. Political activity was now legal so political parties now no longer needed to remain secrets; freedom of speech was also introduced along with the introduction of a state elected Duma. Most of these changes were made as a bid to make the peasants co ntent and prevent the chances of another revolution; however this also banned trade unions and newspapers. The introduction of the first Duma was short lived due to to the disapproval of the Tsar, who dissolved it under theFundamental Law, after only 73 days. This was due to the number of members that were revolutionaries, who wanted to push through more moral ideas and reforms than the Tsar was willing to do, only 2 out of 391 made it into the law. This then led to the Wborg manifesto, which was a group of frustrated Duma members teaming up to go against the Tsar's action of raising taxes Ã¢â¬â unfortunately this backfired, leading to all 200 members being banned from standing in the next Duma. The next Duma followed a similar suit, Just with the gaining of the Social Revolutionaries and theSocial Democrats gaining seats, it was the third and fourth Dumas that raised the most change within Russian society, but this may have been due to the Electoral Reform. In order to make sure that the government gained the best support, voting was restrained to the wealthy, meaning that only 30% of Russia could vote. This meant that the majority of the revolutionaries supporters could not vote, leading to to mostly pro-government parties winning the vote. The Duma was never seen as political institution and was never meant to be, it was supposed to be a simple forum o please the masses and make them believe that the autocracy was listening.The Third ; Fourth Dumas managed to make some successful reforms as the government were more inclined to listen to them, they managed to replace the biased Land Captains, introduced universal primary education, create health and accident insurance programmes and made improvements to the army and navy. Despite the fact that the Duma were never supposed to be parliamentary, they still successfully managed to have the Duma debates reported in the press, meaning that the reformers and radicals participating managed to influence public opi nion egitimately Ã¢â¬â something that had been denied to them previously.This reform had helped helped create political reform, as it had created a space where a forum for political debate could be taken note ot, and could be published without being censored. It meant that political parties had been established legally, and despite the fact that the Third and Fourth Dumas thwarted many reforms, they helped too, as not all of the seats in this institution had been pro-government. Another factor affecting the amount of political change over the years is the use of Peter Stolypin, the Russian Prime Minister from 1906- 1911.It is hard not to see Stolypin as a reformer, as he evidently saw what policies and laws needed to be changed or created in order to vanquish any repeat of the revolution, as he brought great changed to the Russian countryside, giving peasants the freedom to leave their communes, offering them cheap land in Siberia, or helping them to own their pieces of land thro ugh the redistribution of peasant wealth through the Land Bank.This had a big impact, as it lead to 50% of peasants having ownership of land, and agricultural production had risen from 45. 9 million tonnes to 61. 7 million tonnes in 1913. It is said by historians hat had war not broken out, Russia could have developed a more stable, loyal and prosperous peasantry, as Stolypin envisaged. On the other hand, despite the rise on crop yields and production, not much was done about the living and working conditions of Russia's industrial workers.This was definitely shown after his assassination, where a plague of Russian unrest came around again, only leading to the Lena Goldfield massacre of 1912 in Siberia, which led to strikers being killed by the police. This was then a tipping point for more strikes and demonstrations, reminiscent of the 1905 revolution, to take place, showing that despite the fact Stolypin had helped reform a little economically, it was immediately undone by the wra th of popular unrest amongst the lower classes once more.From these two arguments it is very easy to see points helping question the extent of the Russian economic and political changes over the years, but I believe that the true tipping point comes to the Fundamental Law. This Fundamental Law, created in 1906, created the constitution of the Russian Empire, creating a national parliament with the lower house (the Duma), being elected. This all sounds very good, and sounds like political eforms were in their heights in 1906 Ã¢â¬â but this was completely changed in Article 87.This gave the right for the Tsar to govern by decree, thereby ignoring his faithfully created' parliament. This basically meant that the creation of the Duma was practically pointless, as the Tsar could still change his mind as to what laws he wanted created, and which laws he would go against, putting incredible restrictions on how much could be done within the Russian Empire. Therefore, I find that the exte nt to which the Russian Empire underwent economic and political changes were the smallest possible, as Nicholas was not willing to create any reforms.
Definition of marketing is the management process through which goods and services move from concept to the customer. For example, new Apple products are developed to include improved applications and systems, are set at different prices depending on how much capability the customer desires, and are sold in places where other Apple products are sold.Marketing is based on thinking about the business in terms of customer needs and their satisfaction. The overall concept of marketing is a management philosophy according to which a irm's goals can be best achieved through identification and satisfaction of the customers stated and unstated needs and wants. Companies should identify the needs of their customer and produce products and services to satisfy those needs.The production concept is a philosophy that consumers will favour products and services that are widely available and highly affordable and that management should therefore focus on improving production and distribution effici ency this is relevant to Nike as they do this with small products cheaper products such as accessories and ports equipment relying on economies of scale to make profit on products that are priced cheaper.Private sector can be explained as a business owned by private individual or groups and there main aims and objective and one of those objectives is to make a profit, and growth mean that they can -maximise their profits by reinvesting in the business. The main aim of a private sector business is survival as they want the business to last and not go bust. The main aim and objectives of my two business which are Apple and Nike theirs is to remain marketing leader in there industry.Public sector is part of an economy that is controlled by the government and is not run for profit such as schools and hospitals. The Voluntary sector is part of the economy that consists of non-profit making organisation such as charities and is run by volunteers. The public sector and voluntary measure th eir progress not by profits but with other factors such as service provision, growth of range of provisions, cost limitations and meeting quality.Service provision the act of performing a task for a business or person that wants or requires it in exchange for acceptable ompensation. A business that using service provision needs high quality trained staff such as the fire department that are available to preform what is need of them in a situation and doing the Job to the best they can. Growth of range of provisions is the number of services a public or voluntary sector do and the quality they do such a school offering extra courses things such as after school clubs to helps the student's and develop.Cost limitation is used to see if the businesses have used the funds they have at had adequately as for public sector organisations such as school hey will need to distribute the money they receive to get the best out of there students. Meeting quality standards are used in the public an d voluntary sector as for hospitals they rely on this as lives are in danger and will need to provide a standard to the people seeking help.Marketing objectives the group of goals set by a business when promoting its products or services to potential consumers that objectives may be based on factors other than survival and growth. Market leadership is the position of a company with the largest market share or highest profitability margin in a given market for goods and services. Market share may be measured by either the volume of goods sold or the value of those goods. This links both to Nike and Apple as they are the market leaders in the given markets.Brand awareness is the likelihood that consumers recognise the presence and availability of a company's product or service. Creating brand awareness is one of the key steps in promoting a product both for Nike and Apple they do this very well as they are recognised globally plus have such iconic logos that are easily recognisable. P erception of customers is a marketing concept that encompasses customer's impression awareness and/or consciousness about a company or its offerings.Customer perception is typically affected by advertising, reviews, public relations, social media, personal experiences and other channels. Ansoff was known best for developing a strategies he Identified as the four categories for growing and the categories are market penetration, marketing development, product development and diversification. Market penetration the activity or fact of increasing the market share of an existing product, or promoting a new product, through strategies such s bundling, advertising, lower prices, or volume discounts.Marketing development is the act of increasing the total market served by a company by finding new customers and markets, or providing new products to existing customers and markets. An example of this for Nike is their sports clothes and trainers are always developing and coming out with new id eas. Product development this strategy entails finding new markets for existing products. Market research and further segmentation of markets helps to identify new groups of customers. An example for Nike is producing a new winter line or a new product or material such as Dri-fit.Diversification this involves moving new products into new markets at the same time. It is the most risky strategy. The more an organisation moves away from what it has done in the past the more uncertainties are created. However, if existing activities are threatened, diversification helps to spread risk. Survival strategies are used by many businesses as they are faced with having to develop there strategies to survive such as economising the business to reduce expenses. This would lead to the business being less profitable and have a smaller market impact and awareness.In business a rand is a unique design, sign, symbol, words, or a combination of these, employed in creating an image that identifies a pr oduct and differentiates it from its competitors making it stand out and easy to remember. The process involved in creating a unique name and image for a product in the consumers mind, mainly through advertising campaigns with a consistent theme. Branding is used by both businesses as they have brand name, a logo and a slogan. They are both such powerful brands worldwide. They both have brand extension and are always looking to keep brand building as well as both do brand extension.
Monday, July 29, 2019
In Praise of Blame by George Sher - Essay Example He has a few theories about it and sets about to debating over them one of them being blameÃ¢â¬â¢s relation to character. Sher starts off arguing against the Humean idea about how blaming someone depends on the personÃ¢â¬â¢s character. Someone who has a bad character is the one who can be blamed about things and not otherwise. He has different point of views regarding this and debates over them. The Humean claim is that we can only blame people if their bad side emerges because of the negative qualities Ã¢â¬â or a particular negative quality - they may have. Basically, if someone is generally a very bad person, he may be mean or selfish or rude, etc. then only he may automatically have terrible qualities and we can judge him depending on those. We may actually end up holding them responsible for whatever issue has taken place. On the other hand, if the person is actually very nice and due to certain circumstances he has not been acting well mannered and has been showing the al most nonexistent bad qualities, then we should not blame them for whatever mistakes they may make. Since they are just that Ã¢â¬â a mistake Ã¢â¬â which surely would never be made again. It is, of course, human nature to make blunders. Nobody is perfect though there are some people who are striving to be so even if they are not fully reaching the top line. People are well mannered and have good morals but they cannot always keep up with their expectations of themselves. They will slip up some day or the other. It may be because of some problems they are facing. A person may be very sweet tempered but due to some personal inconveniences he is going through, he may not be acting like his usual self. He may lose his patience quickly and start shouting without much reason. It is a general assumption that the person is nice and should not be blamed about his few mistakes. This may happen quite rarely so it is only fair to forgive these people. After all, no harm was done on purpose and a life time of being a good human being should not be ignored just because of a raised voice or something equally unimportant in the long run. So he should not be blamed to whatever may occur due to an impulsive reaction. Someone who is short tempered or just not well mannered may generally have a whole list of undesirable qualities in him. It is his way of life so one may easily charge him with fault if he - yet again - does something disagreeable. One may blame him easily as he is in the habit of doing such things daily; that one knows is not rare mistake. That he knows what he did is not right and yet he continues to do it, that he does not try to redeem himself. Now this point is understandable, of course, but Sher does not seem to be agreeing with the idea. One may basically understand him to believe that blaming people with generally good characters is okay. Just because they make an error in judgement or something, it does not mean that the problem never arose because of them. It was their fault and they should be blamed for it despite the fact that they do not make a habit of it. It was a mistake, no matter how huge or small, and what is done is done. There are side effects of everything Ã¢â¬â be it good or bad Ã¢â¬â so it is only practical that the person be blamed for it. Just because they did not do it purposely or were ignorant to its results does not mean that it was not their fault. Similarly, he also says that just because a person has chock full of negative attributes in him, it does not mean that if he makes a mistake, we should put all the blame on him immediately. He believes that even though the person may have his own set of issues which may lead to him having a
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Organisation of Business - Research Paper Example An example of a hospitality organization chart is shown in the diagram below. The above diagram is a form of a functional organization chart. According to Drury (2004) a functional organization structure, within a company, is one in which all activities of a similar type are placed under the control of the appropriate departmental head. An organization chart usually illustrates the organization structure. An organization structure denotes the way people are grouped in an organization and to whom they report (Drury 2004). The general manager is the leader of the organization. He is in charge of the entire organization and he or she has the responsibility for ensuring that all operations in the hotel are run smoothly (Wood & Brotherton 2008. All the heads of department report to the general manager. Below the General Manager are the heads of departments who are illustrated by the green color. The heads of department are in charge of their departments. They have to ensure that the set their goals and that their goals are in line with the overall organization goals. The heads of department have the responsibility of communicating their goals to the other employees below them (Stair, 2011). Furthermore, heads of department have the duty of preparing the duty roasters of their specific departments. In addition to these duties, the heads of departments have to know the staff requirements of their departments and can also propose the firing of some specific employees that are not fit in their departments (Letavec, 2006). At most hotels, all the heads of departments are usually equal in rank and may meet with the general manager to discuss the direction and goals of the organization. Departmental employees are below the heads of departments in blue color illustrated in the diagram above. They usually report to the heads of department (Andrews, 2009). Their main function is to follow the goals of their specific departments and ensure that they achieve their
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Individual Design report -Technology Integration - Coursework Example The artefact itself will be the size of an average human torso, which will be placed on a square platform and will be encased in a glass box of about six feet height and three feet width on all sides. Glass panels on all sides will be electric blue in colour and embedded with LED lightning streaks panelled on the sides and back, which can play different patterns of lightning on predetermined intervals or through sensor detection as people pass by and on-off switch will be controlled both through pre-programmed computer system within the platform of the artefact. The front side will be plain glass with no embellishments to afford a clear view. The female form will be rendered in very light cream colour to allow better transparency. The artefact will be facing the sidewalk or road so that it receives maximum view. The female has a cigarette packet in her left hand and a lighted cigarette between the fingers of her right hand. Every time she brings the cigarette to her mouth and takes a drag, the tip will glow and her lungs will be displayed. As she takes out the cigarette from her mouth and brings the hand down, her lungs will darken and the light will fade out. An audio will play, Ã¢â¬Å"Puffing out Your Lungs?Ã¢â¬ and simultaneously the lightning streaks will illuminate, playing different patterns on all sides and, at the same time, the words of the audio will appear on the front panel. Once the entire series of action is completed, it will repeat only when a passerby approaches within the radius of five metres, or again at a predetermined interval as per the computer programme. When placed on busy roadsides and other areas in future, the artefact will cater for appropriate changes depending on the locations where these will be placed and will also introduce sensors and other appropriate systems for vehicles passing by. During the intervals between the actions, the system will play some mild music. Evaluation: The main objective of this project is to attract the attention of the public to the health hazards of behaviours such as smoking. The glasswork of the design and the lighting effects are intended for attracting and engaging the public who are the audience for this campaign. LED embedding in glass panels is a rather recently developed technology that has immense potential in attracting attention. The technology involves the use of a Ã¢â¬Å"sustainable active glass system,Ã¢â¬ which can diffuse an array of vibrant colour lights emanating from LEDs and can be operated through electronic programming (LED in Glass 2011:2). The following diagram will illustrate the system: (LED in Glass 2011) This system allows the emission of light from several multicoloured LED strips through glass edges and the light gets Ã¢â¬Å"refracted out of the front and backÃ¢â¬ (2). The same technology will be used for the burning tip of the cigarette, which will be triggered on the movement of the arm. This technology offers immense possibility of alig ning a wide range of design, colour and light features into glass and can be highly appealing to the audience, especially during night times. The lightning streaks will be in deep orange colour that will enable visibility from distance and also catch the immediate attraction of public. The system will operate through electronic programming of a suitable type that is user friendly and cost effective. In addition, technologies such as cloud computing will be used for enabling easy access and operational efficiency of the
Friday, July 26, 2019
The impact of the emergence of China and India on the world economy - Essay Example The concept of "emerging markets" was suggested by the International Finance Corporation to describe the developing economies with the extraordinary potential for rapid growth. According to statistics, majority of the emerging markets have transformed and improved their economic performance over the last two years. Moreover, the total output of the emerging markets (led by China) represents more than half of the global gross domestic product (Siddiqi 2006, p. 48). In 2005, the emerging markets combined GDP by $1.6 trillion outpacing the $1.4 trillion of advanced economies! China and India account for 20 percent of the total increase and have the share of 42% in total merchandise exports. United States, Eurozone and Japan are exporting more than 50 percent of total exports to developing countries. There are three factors which prompted the emerging markets on the higher growth: export-led growth fuelled by increasing American import demand, increased commodity prices and low interest rates (Siddiqi 2006, p. 49). ... India and China have contributed 30 percent of the global growth between 2000-2005 and their share in the world trade has increased from 7 percent to 15 percent. They have doubled their contribution to world economy in only five years. International corporations are increasing their operations in China and India. Moreover, India and China are also increasing their activity on the international business arena. For example, India's Vedanta Resources invested in Zambia's Konkola Copper Mines and China National Petroleum Corporation has actively invested in African oil-production countries (Siddiqi 2006, p. 51). The stable commodity markets, reflecting the demand for energy and natural resources, have enabled China to overtake Japan as the second largest oil importer after United States. BRIC countries account for 20 percent of world oil demand, while Indian intellectual property second has ensured that its government takes the lead in the negotiations within World Trade Organization. India's annual growth rate is at least 6 percent and even before 1991 when India's finance minister began to dismantle the post-colonial license Raj of state regulation of the economy, the national growth was above 3.5 percent a year (Luce 2006, p. 23). Despite of the rapid growth, more than one-third of global poor population lives in India. Even with a such a high number of poor people, India might capture the large share of the global software, manufacturing, pharmaceutical, and automobile components markets. India's growth derives from the service sector: information technology, back office processing, outsourcing, finances, medical services, media services and consumer industry. China's growth, on the contrary is based on manufacturing
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Does Police Discretion Amount to a Miscarriage of Justice - Literature review Example In truth, as stated by some criminologists, when there was a dispute, public order takes precedence over enforcement of the law or policing (Maguire, Morgan, & Reiner 2007, 227). Once it is recognised as an expected aspect of law enforcement that there are instances when the law is Ã¢â¬Ëinadequately implementedÃ¢â¬â¢ the issue then emerges whether every sector of the society gain evenly from this. This essay reviews related literature on police work to explore whether police use of discretion could be considered as a miscarriage of justice. Police Discretion Police have the power to take away the liberty of citizens, apprehend or detain them, and even use lethal force to restrain them. An important feature of this professional duty is the Ã¢â¬ËdiscretionÃ¢â¬â¢ the police has in performing their duties. Discretion may include discriminating/selective law enforcement (e.g. when a law enforcer decides not to apprehend a pub that is selling liquors to minors (Ogletree & Sarat 200 9, 18). Law enforcers exercise discretion when they make a decision to apprehend one offender for unruly behaviour but to let another go free. Most police officers exercise a considerable extent of personal discretion in performing everyday duties, occasionally called in criminal justice Ã¢â¬Ëlow-visibility decision makingÃ¢â¬â¢ (Siegel & Worrall 2012, 125). Such expression implies that, not like most departments of criminal justice, law enforcers are neither controlled in their everyday practices and behaviour by governmental inspection nor under judicial investigation, except when their actions undoubtedly abuses a criminalÃ¢â¬â¢s legal rights. The people accept the power of police to use discretion. However, recently, scholars and policymakers have publicly shown great resentment about the discretion used by the police, and there have been numerous demands to abolish, weaken, or regulate this power (Siegel & Worrall 2012, 125-126). These people believe that police use of di scretion often leads to miscarriage of justice. One justification of such demands is the widespread belief that law enforcement is ought to be ministerial, performing its tasks in rigid compliance to legislative conditions. Another justification is the widely held belief that as the police use discretion, they are predisposed to show prejudice against some individuals and/or groups, mostly resulting in wrongful convictions (Sutherland, Cressey, & Luckenbill 1992, 355). As a matter of fact, there is abundant evidence revealing that, for a particular offence, law enforcers are more inclined to apprehend men than women, young individuals than older ones, Black people than White people, etc. Thus, police discretion attracts a lot of controversies (Sutherland et al. 1992, 355). As remarked by William McDonald (1973), Ã¢â¬Å"It invites arbitrariness, favouritism, corruption, and injustice. Even when it is exercised even-handedly, it can create the appearance of injusticeÃ¢â¬ (Sutherlan d et al.1992, 355). All the same, police discretion will continue to exist because no legislative body, absent from the street, can accurately and unmistakably specify beforehand what actions must have as its outcome a formal arrest. As emphasised by Albert Reiss, Jr. (1971) (Sutherland et al. 1992, 355): It is incumbent upon a police officer to enter upon a variety of social stages, encounter the actors, determine
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Midterm - Essay Example The right or the freedom of speech and expression demands that one should be allowed to freely express their views as long as they do not infringe upon the rights of other people by expressing their views. By sacking teachers for something legal that they do in their private time, the school districts deny teachers the freedom to freely and legally express their views. For instance, in TurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s article, we learn that a Philadelphia high school teacher was sacked because of a posting to her blog in which the teacher had complained of the lazy and careless behaviour of her students. Given the fact that teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s blog post was general and was not targeted at any particular student, the teacher had not violated any rights of her students. For this reason, therefore, by sacking the teacher, the school district acted improperly and denied the teacher the freedom to freely express her views. The second reason why I believe school districts should not sack teachers because of something they do in personal time is that sacking teachers for something they do in their private time is an infringement on the teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ privacy. In the TurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s article, for instance, we learn that in the year 2010, unidentified teacher in Pennsylvania was suspended after a third party posted a picture on Facebook showing her with a male stripper at a bridal shower. By suspending the teacher because of the picture that she had been taken with a male stripper at a party, the school district infringed upon the privacy of the teacher. This is because the teacher has the right to live her private life in whichever way she wishes as long as she does not violate the rights of other people. The third reason why I believe that school district should not sack teachers for the legal things that they do in their private life is that human beings change
Sustainable management futures - Assignment Example The concept of CSR consists of attractive or good business ethics and is associated with what could be evaluated ethically or morally good (Robins, 2008). According to Waddock (2004) CSR is Ã¢â¬Å"The separation of company responsibilities which associates with a corporate discretionary/voluntary associations with its community and societal stakeholders.Ã¢â¬ Corporations view integrating an active CSR subsistence as a contrivance to boost their gung ho benefit with exterior and interior stakeholders (Branco & Rodrigues, 2006).This essay examine the CSR activities and behaviour of Sainsbury in its home country and overseas and evaluates it ethical and environmentally responsible behaviour by applying relevant moral theories and sustainability replicas to date and create recommendations. Sainsbury plc is UKÃ¢â¬â¢s leading food merchant with interests in financial and non-food services. The group consists of Bells Stores, SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s Supermarkets, SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s Bank and JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Stores. It has more than 145,000 employees working under various groups. The business of Sainsbury business is constructed on a dedication to services and quality since 1869 and its main is to give the best products to its customers at an affordable price. In the year 1996, Sainsbury began official reporting with regards to ecological impact. This reporting was further broadened to Corporate Social Responsibility as reply to greater demand among its shareholders. This essay is further divided in various sections that will help us evaluates it ethical and environmentally responsible behaviour by applying relevant moral theories and sustainability replicas to date and create recommendations. Corporate Social Responsibility and Sainsbury CSR means a lot to Sainsbury, as it means offering their consumers abundant range of good and quality food products at a reasonable price. Besides this it also means offering a fair price to it suppliers a reassurance that they have a consumer for their goods. To Sainsbury, this means enriching their communities via career and employment development prospects along with making profits for their shareholders. Moreover the right usage of valuable resources such as electricity and water and perseverance of the local surroundings is yet another aspect for them. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s major CSR objectives are as follows: Perk up energy efficiency Heave colleague responsiveness of energy expenses and ecological effect Transporting produces more economically by reducing the miles travelled by deliverance fleet and utilising electric motor vehicles in its domicile delivery flotilla. In the theoretical structure SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s rank greatly for its Corporate Social Responsibility activities particularly with regards ecological issues. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s has spent in energy competence projects, as well as refrigeration, lighting, ventilation and heating showing the corporate enduring financial dedication to CSR actions. Wi th the help of Carbon Trust, Sainsbury has also made a 5 site waste and energy study in order to perk up existing practice in waste and energy management. In addition, in 2010 they drew strategy to alter 20 percent of its house delivery flotilla to electric motor vehicles (Mintel, 2008) which justifies its high score in the theoretical structure for its inbound logistics. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s CSR Strategies The 1st monitoring strategy in order to assist dairy
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Introduction and conclusion - Essay Example The school is an important place in the life of every student. It is their second home and significant source of knowledge and venue for mastering skills. In this regard, the environment of the school must encourage students to have the zeal for education so as to raise their academic performance. Secondarily, schools are where students spend most of their time each day. Therefore, the facilities of schools should offer a variety of ways to appeal to the learners and leave among them a good impression. The classroom is an important environment where students are exposed to aspects of different fields ranging from basic education to professionalism. Recent research has proven the relationship between performance and classroom facilities. Normally, classroom facilities can either engage or deter students from learning, thus affecting student attendance and academic performance. Tailoring classroom facilities to the developmental needs of students can improve the level of student performance in the classroom. Both the physical and social aspects of classrooms should be considered in order to impact positively on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic performance and social adjustment (Syakima et al., 2011). The basic requirements of a classroom are safety and cleanliness to foster good health and safety. Classrooms should be free from falling objects, well-lighted and well-ventilated. In a report by the U.S. Accounting Office (cited in Schneider, 2002), it was noted that 15,000 schools suffered from poor IAQ, thus affecting health of more than eight million children. The statistics show that a lot of efforts are yet to be done to ensure the safety of school classrooms. However, ventilation and sanitation are only basic requirements in every classroom. The future classroom should have more than the basics. It should respond to the needs of future students. To do so, schools should carefully determine and respond to the needs of students. Some of these
Monday, July 22, 2019
The poem Ã¢â¬ËBut These Things AlsoÃ¢â¬â¢ Essay Thomas has a very distinctive eye for the miniature of nature, often overlooked by others. Explore his appreciation of the natural world in the poem Ã¢â¬ËBut These Things Also.Ã¢â¬â¢ Thomas throughout his collection of works has a very clear and distinct appreciation for nature which he wishes to explore it in all its glory and becomes a recurring theme. He consistently urges Ã¢â¬ËmanÃ¢â¬â¢ to look at the beauty of nature and the effect it has on the natural world. He expresses his application through the words of a poet and tries to do the endless wonder that is nature justice. In Ã¢â¬Ëbut these things alsoÃ¢â¬â¢ he especially highlights the impact nature has on the audiencesÃ¢â¬â¢ life and gives his personal account of the relationship he has with nature and in particular spring. Written in 1915, Thomas has not yet enlisted this is important as although not directly about war, the comparison of winter and spring could be his suggestion that the seasons are more than just seasons but a symbolic representation of life and death, not just in the natural world but also within human life. This could be taken as Thomas commenting on how life and in a sense goes so quickly by like the seasons themselves, therefore liking it to the war and his confusion of whether to enlist. The tone of the poem on a whole is relatively pessimistic to mains appreciation of nature. He begins the opening line almost defining the characteristics of Spring, that he and spring are almost linked with the use of the world Ã¢â¬ËalsoÃ¢â¬â¢, an attempted to glorify spring itself. It then moves onto something slightly more sinister in the grass is Ã¢â¬Ëlong deadÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â something which is not normally attributed to spring itself which is seen as the coming of new life and rejuvenation. This is Thomas saying to the audience that is we do not see the beauty of nature then it may as well be dead to us like in Ã¢â¬Ëwinter is wasÃ¢â¬â¢ as it would have no purpose if the aesthetic is not glorified. The use of enjambment helps the poem to build in crescendo effect. For example Ã¢â¬Ëand starling flocks by chattering on and on keep their spirits up in the mist,Ã¢â¬â¢ this is done for two purposes. Firstly to expresses ThomasÃ¢â¬â¢ exasperation at humans for not noticing nature; he continues on his train of thought without taking a moment to breathe. Moreover he uses it to enable to the beauty of the Ã¢â¬Ëstarling flocksÃ¢â¬â¢ to have an impact on the audience. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just want the audience to notice nature he wants them to bask in it, and by using enjambment he is able to have the continuous train of thought so people can experience its beauty without interruption. It is also important to look at the reason for Thomas describing the birds as Ã¢â¬Ëchattering on and onÃ¢â¬â¢. This can be seen as a representation of the rest of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s complete disregard for its beauty. They do not take the time to just stop and look but continue on with their daily lives missing the important things i.e. nature. Furthermore birds are a reoccurring theme which Thomas uses throughout his body of works as a symbolism of the soldiers and of mankind as a whole. In words, a poem which has a lot of similarities to this as both emphasise the beauty and complexity of a Ã¢â¬ËthingÃ¢â¬â¢, Thomas refers to the words as Ã¢â¬ËnightingalesÃ¢â¬â¢ in order to represent their freedom. This is similar this this poem as Thomas is showing the beauty and freedom of nature on a whole through the use of a bird. He uses the power of the second stanza to try and emphasize the things that he himself notices that are beautiful in the world. Ã¢â¬ËThe chip of flint and mite of chalkÃ¢â¬â¢ very menial things in the sense of the entire world but for Thomas they are the ones which matter the most, the minute detail as it is. He even shows his appreciation for Ã¢â¬Ëthe small birdsÃ¢â¬â¢ dungÃ¢â¬â¢ something which would never in a normal context be seen as something to look highly upon. However for Thomas it makes up the natural world. Ã¢â¬Ëa man mistakesÃ¢â¬â¢ shows Thomas imploring the audience to not always see these sorts of things as bad but look at them in the sense of art which is adding to beauty. This could also be seen as a representation of the blots on the world as a whole, a critic of them almost. The Ã¢â¬Ësplashes of whiteÃ¢â¬â¢ can be taken as the impurities that man himself carelessly inflicts on nature. The Ã¢â¬ËruinsÃ¢â¬â¢ that the violets seek through are these impurities, and only that nature of beauty itself can purify them totally. Given the context this could be the blot of war but also symbolism for the blood shed from war and how it is dampening nature and losing it altruistic qualities. The symbolism of the violets is key in this poem. It links into to Thomas direct use of flowers/herbs and is used an imagery device. He does this similarly in the poem Ã¢â¬ËMarchÃ¢â¬â¢ where he references the primroses, and in Ã¢â¬ËOld ManÃ¢â¬â¢ were the initial is an herb in itself. Violets are the first flowers to bloom in spring time and are therefore the first hope of life. This is something which is a parallel with hat of March. It contrasts the darkness of winter with the light and hope of spring. Ã¢â¬ËTo pay winters debtsÃ¢â¬â¢ is the flowers and therefore nature in spring time making up for the darkness and the gloom of winter. It almost a like a reference to pathetic fallacy, for spring has to bring him joy in comparison to the dark gloomy days that winter brings. The final line of Ã¢â¬Ëbut these things alsoÃ¢â¬â¢ highlights the emphasis that Thomas wishes to place on the beauty of nature and how so many of us miss it in the everyday world. He is not just glorifying spring he is also glorying winter. Ã¢â¬ËSprings here, winter not goneÃ¢â¬â¢ he is stating that the beauty of nature is regardless of the seasons and each one holds a new treasure which man must appreciate. This is similar to the poem Ã¢â¬ËgloryÃ¢â¬â¢ where he is trying to find the words to express his feelings towards nature but here he is saying that words nor seasons do not matter, nature in its full force is omnipresent. However this could also be read as the impacts of winters destruction and gloom are ever overshadowing the goodness of spring and the beauty of it. This can be translated into Tomas saying that man is missing out on the beauties of life; even when in full bloom spring cannot detract from the unhappiness in life, and especially war. It is his job therefore throughout this poem to try and make the audience see that there is so much goodness in the world and especially nature. In conclusion ThomasÃ¢â¬â¢ use of the theme of nature and his appreciation of it is one which is diverse. His main aim it to try and have an impact on the audiences view of nature and let them see that this is not always destruction in the world even if it may appear that way on the surface. He attempts to show them his view of nature and how it personal makes him feel, whilst also showing them some of the beauties of the world which they may miss in everyday life due to the all-consuming war. He effectively uses pieces of imagery to enable the audience to picture nature and have it at the fore front of their minds. He explores the themes of nature, war and destruction, which is in keeping with his other body of works.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Porters value chain RUNNNING HEAD: PORTERS VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS Porters Value Chain and Information System [Name of the Writer] [Name of the Institution] Porters Value Chain and Information System Introduction The person most accredited for mounting and articulating the value chain thought is Michael Porter in his 1985 book, Competitive advantage. He offers viewing a firm as a sequential procedure of value-creating actions as a means of a influential conceptual tool for thoughtful the building slabs of competitive advantage. What is a value chain? The value chain shows the full variety of activities that are nedded to bring a product or organization from conception, throughout the intermediary stages of production (involving a grouping of physical change and the effort of various manufacturer services), rescue to final consumers, and final removal after use. (Porter, 1985) The Michael Porter value chain structure has two parts. The first part holds five primary processes: Inbound Logistics (warehousing, receiving and inventory management of raw materials and mechanism); Operations (value-creating actions that change raw materials and parts into finished salable yields); Outbound Logistics (warehousing, order fulfillment, transportation); Sales Marketing (channel assortment, pricing, advertising, sales); Service (customer care, repair, etc.). The second part holds four support type methods: Firm transportation (management, finance, quality, legal); Procurement (acquirement); Human Resources (enlisting, development, reimbursement); Technology Expansion (research and growth, process mechanization, and other technology progress). (Porter, 1985) The five forces analysis is intended to help corporations understand how gainful an industry is and also what they can do to alleviate unenthusiastic forces and thereby improve productivity. Considering the five forces model, we can create to see how this links to the generic approaches. Value chain analysis This needs an ability to resolve the value the firm is demanding to create. Value in this logic is simply the reason why customers favor one companys product over that of its opponent ie, the additional value they recieve from the companys product. This value should logically effect from either a lower cost or extra profits for which they are equipped to pay more. Using our investigation so far, they acquire from cost influential or differentiators. We can use value chain study to ensure that all actions in the firm are in procession with its search of this value. (Tsoukas, 2002 p. 567-582) A firm follow a cost leadership strategy would initiate suitable activities throughout its value chain, as would a company pursuing separation. So, to gain a competitive advantage, a company must follow either cost leadership or demarcation, along with a suitable degree of focus. It can after that use a five forces analysis to charge how this strategy may succeed and productivity might be enhanced. Value chain analysis canister help to recognize and create actions that support the selected generic strategy Some economists assert that the breaches of trust (e.g., at Enron, ImClone, WorldCom, and Global Crossing) that resulted in passage of the Sarbannes-Oxley Act (SOX)were all crimes of information partly involving an unsupervised expert. While Boards will continue to rely on experts such as the CIO for advice, the responsibility remains theirs. (Tsoukas, 2002 p. 567-582) The value chain affirms the importance of the CIO, but lets knows that the Board will be exercising oversight by consulting a number of sources, looking for convergence and consistency. Another example is Infosys that began to move up the IT services value chain into consulting and end-to-end IT solutions while continuing to offer low-end software services. As it moved up the value chain, the company weathered a global downturn due to the September 11th tragedy and the dotcom and telecom bust. (Romme, 2003 p. 558-573) In conventional planning for information systems (IS), companies start with imagining the desired future IS for the company, analyze the present application portfolios, and then compare the two to identify gaps. It is then possible to decide if anew portfolio of applications is to be developed to reach the desired future state. Advances in global information technology (IT) and telecommunications infrastructures, trends in deregulation and trade liberalization, and the emergence of world-class skills and capabilities in offshore locations (Tsoukas, 2002 p. 567-582) have opened up new sourcing opportunities beyond traditional domestic in sourcing and outsourcing. Along the ownership (in source versus outsource) and location (domestic versus offshore) dimensions, four main types of sourcing mechanisms are available: domestic in sourcing, domestic outsourcing, offshore insourcing, and offshore outsourcing. (Van de Ven, 2005 p. 1377-1404) While the outsourcing phenomenon has been well recognized and addressed in the literature, the business process outsourcing and off shoring phenomena are relatively new. Through modular business process and IT designs, firms can unbundle their value chain processes, decouple them from the underlying IT support infrastructure, and make sourcing decisions that best fit the characteristics of business processes. Tight coupling of business processes and IT is negatively associated with a firms ability to detach its processes from each other and from IT. This may leave the firm with no choice but to use a uniform sourcing mechanism for all business processes. (Van de Ven, 2005 p. 1377-1404) Our findings imply that the firm may forego opportunities to exploit low-cost, high-quality capabilities in offshore locations because tight coupling among business processes and with IT may make it infeasible or too costly to separate a business process from the firm and source it from offshore locations. The information chain To the basic elements of the information engineering approach, we add the notion of information chains. The information-chain concept parallels that of the value chain. In fact, for every component of the value chain, at least one information chain exists to support it. Such a chain may begin with a marketing forecast. The forecast leads to a sales plan, from which managers develop a production plan, and thence to a series of decisions about purchases, labor force commitments, and finally a series of sales results. The sales results are eventually quantified as ACTUALS in a sales report, and senior managers can assess the validity of the original marketing forecast in light of these actual results. (Boland, 2000) Unfortunately, most information systems cannot support the association of specific plans and observed results. That is, they cannot close the information chain. Although these systems are excellent at processing transactions, they lack the capability to trace the flow of eve nts, materials, information, and the decisions managers make about them. The transaction processing focus is an intrinsic limitation, but it isnt the only one. Another limitation is the overwhelming emphasis most organizations place on financial results. When organizations stress financially oriented performance measures, they tend to obscure or confuse the tracking of more fundamental causes of performance successes or failures. (Van de Ven, 2005 p. 1377-1404) New accounting methods like activity-based costing are an improvement, but still stress financial measures. Creating customer value is a tough proposition without a focus on traceability. Traceability of causes Traceability of cause and effect is a basic requirement in the transition to competing based on value-chain logic. Traceability is important in solving problems of delivering goods to customers on time, because this performance measure is fundamental to perceived value in the marketplace. In this area, most information systems can provide a quantification of service levels but few provide the mechanisms to determine why specific measurements were observed. For example, many steel service centers have informative systems that can accurately report how many days it took to deliver a quantity of steel to a customer, but few such systems provide management insight on why some deliveries were late. (Tsoukas, 2002 p. 567-582) The value-chain architecture The key benefit of value-chain logic is that it clarifies the relationship of internal operations to events visible to the companys customers and critical stakeholders. Information engineering, with a few methodological improvements, can help clarify the corresponding information relationships through which the company creates those events. For example, the function-entity matrices that contrast business function against data can be useful in finding point of sensitivity and leverage in performance. (Romme, 2003 p. 558-573) Conclusion In the past, outsourcers tended to look just like enterprise IT departments, handling large numbers of diverse devices, systems and applications. By contrast, the new model is based on the idea that different players in the market will focus very narrowly on a limited set of competencies (e.g., managing data centers, servers, a particular application, or a specific business process). Since, for example, the competencies needed to succeed at operating server farms are different from those needed to provide a specific application service, the rules of competitive engagement will change: Companies that try to provide totally integrated outsourcing are likely to fail against competitors that are themselves highly focused, and have a series of inter-dependent partnerships. This major restructuring of the IT value chain introduces its own forms of complexity and the need for something akin to integrated, end-to-end multi-vendor management. It will also create the need for a new type of industry player, a service integrator. Early leaders in this new role are International Network Services (INSwww.ins.com) and ATT Solutions (www.att.com/solutions). (Romme, 2003 p. 558-573) The ability to address a much wider range of concepts and the quality of those insights are much higher. Now the team can plan learning in relation to time, which dramatically portrays opportunities lifecycle cost. The depth of analysis is greater. There is also tremendous learning potential through scenario analyses, which are embedded in the new tools. The effect is a more representative project profile. While the development of unconventional resources is a complex value chain, the new tools and processes Shell unconventional oil has implemented are applicable to conventional opportunities where there is a portfolio of projects to be managed. In these instances, the same tools and processes outlined here enable a portfolio of multiple wells to be more effectively managed at a higher aggregation level. If a portfolio contains multiple individual projects with dependencies and common resources (constraints), it is a candidate for more effective modeling using the dynamic business-simulation planning processes. References Boland, R., F. Coilopy. 2004. Managing as Designing. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. Huff S.L., Maher P.M., and Munro M.C., What Boards Dont Do-But Must Do-About Information Technology, Ivey Business Journal, 69/1 (September/October 2004): 1-4. Porter Michael, Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance (New York: Free Press, 1985). Porter M.E. and Millar V.E., How Information Gives You Competitive Advantage, Harvard Business Review, 63/4 (July/August 1985): 149-160. Romme, G. 2003. Making a difference: Organization as design. Organ. Sei. 14(5) 558-573. Tsoukas, H., R. Chia. 2002. On organizational becoming: Rethinking organizational change. Organ. Sei. 13 567-582. Van de Ven, A. H., M. S. Poole. 2005. Alternative approaches for studying organizational change. Organ. Stud. 26(9) 1377-1404.
History of Hauora Maori Trends and Paradigms Student Name: YI LI Student ID: 12010316 Assessment Task 1 Ã¢â¬â Plan and Research of Hauora MaÃ ¶ri Trends and Paradigms from 1919 to the present day a) Introduction The research is investigated the trend of MaÃ ¶ri health which included the paradigms of cancer, obesity and diabetes in from 1919 to the present day. MaÃ ¶ri had the higher risk of suffering from these health diseases than non-MaÃ ¶ri population in Te Tai Tkerau (Northland). There is variety factors would affect these health issues, including cultural and historical socio-economic status, geographical place of residence, ethnic identity. According to MaÃ ¶ri concept, Hauora is a MaÃ ¶ri philosophy of health and well-bing unique to New Zealand, which include four accept: Physical Wellbeing, Mental and Emotional wellbeing, Social Wellbeing and Spiritual wellbeing. The purpose of the research was to identify the traditional approaches to Hauora, the issues of access to primary and secondary health service. To analysis the health service system in recent years of Te Tai Tkerrau area. b) Methodology Results of interview with local iwi, hapu and whanau The interview was holding on 1st October 2013 which included 10 MaÃ ¶ri who is suffering breast cancer, diabetes and obesity. Before the interview, the researcher was calling to explain the research and the purpose of the interview, communicating the plan and related details for the interview and other whanau members. A powhire was present. Then whaikorero was followed the karanga. A waiata was sung after each whaikorero by the group of the orator represents. Koha were exchanged between researcher and leader. Then was hongi and shared hakari. Notes were taken during the interview. Ethical and cultural considerations within a Hauora context Researcher understands the importance determining and meeting cultural requirements, relevant legislation, and ethical practice. Request the permission of the leader and future support. An appointment was made before the interview. Mihi and pepeha were performed. Private information of the participants was kept confidentiality, their name, pictures, and interview notes and so on. Available recourses Had interview with Whanau leader and members Marae visit Social Work MaÃ ¶ri tutor guidance Access to Northland District Health Board website Data collection Online research Online research is a major variety of literature for the study of research methods. The researcher research the main cause of cancer, diabetes, and obesity. As well as analysis the manifestations of three diseases. Statistical analysis Statistical analysis is for data collection, collation summary. To identify the Hauora MaÃ ¶ri trends of the three different diseases. The data for this is from the New Zealand Health Survey, conducted for the Ministry of Health. The paradigm is draw up to show compare the data between MaÃ ¶ri, Pacific and Non-MaÃ ¶ri and Non-Pacific who were living Te Tai Tokerau (Northland), during the 1980 to present day. Document analysis Document analysis mainly refers to the collection, identification, organize the literature, and through literature research, scientific understanding of the facts forming method. Therefore, the student researched the literature to find information about traditional approaches to hauora and issues of access to primary and secondary health services. Interview with the Whanau leader The five questions were asked which related to their recent health service provider as below: Are you satisfied with the current health services? Do you have family doctor? Have you seen your provider within the past 12 months? Do you usually going to a MaÃ ¶ri primary health provider first when unwell or injured? What different of health service between now and before? Tikanga Students used critical skills they had learned from discourse analysis to engage with participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ talk. Acknowledging Tikanga helped the researcher to know the appropriate tikanga for a situation in order to make participant feel comfortable during the Hui. In addition, questions were designed and translated from English language to te reo MÃâÃ ori me ngÃâÃ tikanga. c) Methodology According with Research Ethics and Tikanga MaÃ ¶ri Compete a literature review Literature review was conducted by researching for Hauora MÃâÃ ori trends in Northland region. The information included diabetes, obesity and cancer. Sourcing of information Hapu leaders, whanau members, the internet, Tutors, lectures, document Procedures for recording and analyzing information Recording and analyzing were performed by notes, and computer. Maintained the quality of information with regards to recording of Ethnicity Recorded the consultation and discussion in where they took place. Presenting findings Findings were reported with evidences. Power point is needed Research findings are presented in papar. Assessment Task 2 Ã¢â¬â Analyze Research Regarding Hauora MaÃ ¶ri Trends and Paradigms from 1919 to the Present Day Cancer The cells of Cancer (Cancer Rates-Wairarapa DHB, 2010) Main cause of Cancer: The body in environmental pollution, chemical pollution Cancer is the bodys normal cells in a multi-cause, multi-stage and multiple mutations caused by a class of diseases. Cancer is not the definitive genetic disease, but there is growing evidence that cancer does have a genetic predisposition, have some genetic relationship Manifestations of Cancer are: Tumor: malignant proliferation of cancer cells are formed in the surface by hand or deep touch. Pain: pain often prompts cancer has entered the middle and late. Ulcers: Some cancer cancerous tissue growth surface quickly, nutrient supply, the resulting tissue necrosis. Bleeding: cancer vascular invasion or rupture of small blood vessels in cancer tissue generated. Obstruction: rapid growth of cancerous tissue caused by obstruction. Diabetes Diabetes is a group is characterized by high blood sugar metabolic diseases. Hyperglycemia is due to the biological effects of insulin secretion or impaired, or both causes. Longstanding diabetes high blood sugar , leading to a variety of organizations , especially the eyes , kidneys , heart, blood vessels, nerves , chronic damage , dysfunction . Main cause of Diabetes: Genetic factors Type 1 or type 2 diabetes are obvious genetic heterogeneity. The presence of diabetes onset familial tendency, 1/4 to 1/2 patients had family history of diabetes. Environmental factors Eating too much, reduced physical activity due to type 2 diabetes, obesity is the most important environmental factors that have type 2 diabetes, genetic predisposition morbidity. Type 1 diabetes patients immune system abnormalities, in some viruses such as Coxsackie virus, rubella virus, parotid gland virus infection causes an autoimmune reaction that destroys insulin Ã ² cells. Manifestations of Diabetes: polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia and weight loss Fatigue, weakness, obesity. More common in type 2 diabetes. Obesity (Photograph: Steven Puetzer/Getty Images, 2009) Main cause of Obesity: Obesity is body fat, particularly triglycerides (triglycerides) as a result of excessive accumulation of a state. Usually because food intake too much or cause a change in metabolism excessive accumulation of body fat, resulting in excessive growth of body weight and cause human path physiological changes. According to the different causes of obesity, obesity and obesity can be divided into two major categories of secondary obesity. No clear cause obesity may be related to genetics, diet and exercise habits and other factors. Manifestations of Obesity: Mental performance: Obesity can lead to anxiety, depression, guilt, and so bad attitude, and even hostility to others. Physical performance: such difficulty moving, panting, muscle fatigue, joint pain and swelling and other symptoms. The performance complication: Different complications have their corresponding manifestations. Such as headache, dizziness, daytime sleepiness, difficulty concentrating, memory loss and other symptoms. Cancer For total population and MaÃ ¶ri, by cancerous person 1980-1999 December years in Northland For MaÃ ¶ri, pacific and Non-M Non-p, Age-sex standardized rates per 100,000, ages 25+ By cancer mortality, 1980-1999 December years in Northland and other island The above tables were draw up to show the trend of cancer and cancer mortality during the period in Northland. We can see from the first figure, cancer rates for MaÃ ¶ri are 16 per cent higher than non-MaÃ ¶ri at the beginning, and continue increase steadily. However both MaÃ ¶ri and non-MaÃ ¶ri cancer rates declined between1996 to 99. During the whole period, MaÃ ¶ri cancer rates always higher than non-MaÃ ¶ri group. In the second figure, the rate of cancer mortality of MaÃ ¶ri group is always higher than Pacific and non-M, non-P people, and increase gradually. Cancers were causing 29 per cent of deaths in New Zealand. And the MaÃ ¶ri with cancer have a higher risk of dying than non-MaÃ ¶ri. Northland had significantly higher cancer death rates than nationally. The reason of the change was unhealthy behaviors can increase the risk of developing cancers. Diabetes For total population and MaÃ ¶ri, by diabetic 1930-2010 December years in Northland The chart above is drawn up to show the trend between MaÃ ¶ri and non-MaÃ ¶ri diabetic during 1930 to 2010. It can be seen that MaÃ ¶ri are easier to suffer diabetes than non-MaÃ ¶ri, it has a significant increased from 1930 to 1970, however it begin to drop slowly since 1970, until 2010 it has dropped 15 per cent during ten years. The non-MaÃ ¶ri population has a significantly increase during 1950 to 1990, after that, it is get effective control in 2010. Even thought, MaÃ ¶ri population who suffer from diabetic is still higher than non-MaÃ ¶ri population. Obesity The data below was collected in Adult Nutrition Survey and New Zealand Health Survey. For obesity, age-sex standardized rates per 100,000 ages 1-74 years, 1980-99. The chart above is to show the increase of obesity of two different population compare with MaÃ ¶ri population from 1980 to 1999. The data was show that during 1980 to 1984 period, the MaÃ ¶ri and Pacific population are nearly the same, however, from 1985 to 1999, MaÃ ¶ri population rapidly in creased, especially from year 1985. The growth rate of other two population groups never catch up with MaÃ ¶ri groups. In traditional approaches to hauora from 1900 to 1940, government continued to subsidies doctors as native medical officers in MaÃ ¶ri districts, and to supply native school teachers with medicines for their pupils. More and more hospitals were built. They were only partially government-funded, and because of a perception that MaÃ ¶ri land-owners did not contribute their fair share of rates, there was a tendency for hospital administrators to resent having to admit MaÃ ¶ri patients. Although levels of immunity to new diseases had increased, and death rates were dropping, poor economic circumstances and unsatisfactory living conditions still made many MaÃ ¶ri susceptible to ill health. Traditional health practices were still very common in all MaÃ ¶ri areas. In some districts people were reluctant to participate in any modern health programme, particularly programme that were associated with the government. This was the case in Taranaki and the Waikato, following land confiscations after the 19th-century wars. In the Urewera, too, the prophet Rua KÃâÃ¢â¬Å"nana chose to work for health improvement independently of the government and the MaÃ ¶ri councils. And also Many MaÃ ¶ri were suspicious of hospitals, and found them unsympathetic to MaÃ ¶ri cultural practices and values. A move at this time to establish MaÃ ¶ri hospitals was unsuccessful. The issues access to primary and secondary health services: New Zealand settlement and the treaty of Waitangi The settlersÃ¢â¬â¢ introduction of firearms and new infectious diseases had a major impact on death rates among the MaÃ ¶ris. However, the historical and socioeconomic context in relation to MaÃ ¶ri mortality after the colonization of New Zealand, specifically MaÃ ¶risÃ¢â¬â¢ loss of land, was also important noted that death from disease did not occur to the same extent among those indigenous peoples who kept their land (such as in Samoa and Tonga) as among those who did not, because disruption of their economic base, food supplies, and social networks was far less widespread. For MaÃ ¶ris, this disruption not only occurred via land confiscation made possible through acts of law but also extended to legislation in many other areas, including regulation of MaÃ ¶ri rights and discrimination against the use of MaÃ ¶ri language in schools, all of which have affected the health of MaÃ ¶ri people MaÃ ¶ri health status After reaching a low point of approximately 42000 in 1896, the MaÃ ¶ri population began to increase in subsequent years. Government-initiated public health services and MaÃ ¶ri-controlled health promotion programs, including the appointment of MaÃ ¶ri health inspectors to work within MaÃ ¶ri communities, contributed to this gradual recovery. Also, decreases in mortality were probably influenced by the introduction of a national health care scheme and social welfare system in 1938, along with improvements in treatment methods. Health disparities A number of different explanations have been suggested for the inequalities in health between MaÃ ¶ris and non-MaÃ ¶ris. One common suggestion is that these differences are due to genetic factors. However, about 85% of genetic variation occurs randomly and is not related to race or ethnicity. The striking time trends in MaÃ ¶ri mortality and morbidity during the 20th century demonstrate that environmental factors played the major role. Thus, although genetic factors may contribute to differences in health status between MaÃ ¶ris and non-MaÃ ¶ris in the case of certain specific conditions, they do not play a major role in population and public health terms. Socioeconomic Factors The first studies to assess the role of socioeconomic factors and health status differences between MaÃ ¶ris and non-MaÃ ¶ris investigated mortality in men aged 15 to 64 years. 21Ã¢â¬â23 The most recent of these analyses showed that MaÃ ¶ri men were more than twice as likely as non-MaÃ ¶ri men to die prematurely; also, mortality rates among MaÃ ¶ri men were significantly higher in each socioeconomic class grouping, and mortality differences among these men were greater within their own ethnic social class groups as well. Lifestyle factors It can be argued that lifestyle factors, such as smoking, represent one of the mechanisms by which socioeconomic factors affect health status. However they are interpreted, it is important to consider the extent to which differing lifestyles may account for differences in health status between MaÃ ¶ris and non-MaÃ ¶ris. Discrimination The role of discrimination and racism in harming health is not new but has received increasing attention over the past 20 years. The MaÃ ¶ri Asthma Review reported that conscious or unconscious attitudes of health workers contribute to reluctance by MaÃ ¶ris to seek medical care for their asthma until it is absolutely necessary. Another study reported barriers to accessing diabetes care among MaÃ ¶ris, including unsatisfactory previous encounters with professionals and experiences of disempowerment. Doctors have been shown to be less likely to advocate for preventive measures for MaÃ ¶ri patients than for non-MaÃ ¶ri patients, and MaÃ ¶ris may be less likely than non-MaÃ ¶ris to be referred for surgical care. The interview answer is now analysis as below: The above table was draw up to show the interview answers which related to their primary and secondary health service. Most of the interview were satisfied with the currently health service, they usually visit the GP once a year, and they usually going to a MaÃ ¶ri primary health provider first when they feel unwell as they are closest, especially, the MaÃ ¶ri GP is understand their culture. They will to spend more time discussing with patients, and offered special services that they need. They said the service is much cheaper than before. Assessment task 3 Ã¢â¬â Present Your Findings and Explain aPresent Day Health Priority for MaÃ ¶ri According to the analysis, the Health services and quality differences may raise inequalities in disease survival rates, but generally not the incidence. For example: The main exception is Cervical cancer, and to a lesser extent, colorectal cancer and breast cancer, wherein Screening can detect precancerous lesions, thus reducing cancer Incidence. For this reason, these diseases incidence of the differences between minority or different ethnic groups to a great extent, reflects the differences in social conditions and way of life, and can be used as a integral or marked differences. Therefore, in these disease incidences trend of inequality analysis can evaluate our success, to reduce social inequality and assist the development of health and broader social policy. This analysis also provides a planning tool, considering the future development and funding cancer services, to the trend of the past to predict the future trajectory. Trend about risk factors, can also be incorporated int o the forecasting model, to improve the accuracy of the prediction. MaÃ ¶ri health status is generally worse than that of non-MaÃ ¶ri where information is available. It validates the need to priorities MaÃ ¶ri health gain and development in order to reduce and eliminate health inequalities that currently exist. The developments of MaÃ ¶ri health research priorities need much funding to support and big investment of time in a wide range and strict cooperation in wider New Zealand community, policy makers and health workers (including health workers). The role of health researchers will be convenient. Reference: HawkeÃ¢â¬â¢s Bay District Health Board (2010), HBDHB Health Status Review: Diabetes http://www.google.co.nz/url?sa=trct=jq=esrc=sfrm=1source=webcd=3ved=0CD8QFjACurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hawkesbay.health.nz%2Ffile%2Ffileid%2F36070ei=hk5WUu6xM4f2lAWXpYDACQusg=AFQjCNElsdtOGvhoBCBNQCx40rPvYNBnuwsig2=fik4IgIX4RHQc_TCl-FVyQ Ministry of Health (2013), National Cancer Programme: work plan 2013/14, http://www.health.govt.nz/publication/national-cancer-programme-work-plan-2013-14 Ministry of Health (2006), Mortality and Demographic. http://www.health.govt.nz/publication/mortality-and-demographic-data-2006 Ministry of Health (2010), Cancer: New registrations and deaths. http://www.health.govt.nz/publication/cancer-new-registrations-and-deaths-2010 National Ethnic Population Projections: 2006 (base) Ã¢â¬â2026 http://www.stats.govt.nz/searchresults.aspx?q=MaÃ ¶ri%20population%20project Health Needs Assessment Northland District Health Board For the Ministry of Health. (n.d.). center for public health research See more at: http://reffor.us/index.php#sthash.n8DdYfxD.dpuf Core Health (2013) Patient Rights, Retrieved: http://www.gorehealth.co.nz/rights-and-responsibilities/ Melanie Jordan (2008) Supporting Indiciduals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Spectrum Disorders: Quality Employment Practices, Retrieved: http://www.communityinclusion.org/article.php?article_id=266 Appendices YI LI 12010316 1
Saturday, July 20, 2019
*New Buddy* The book I read is called The Diary of Anne Frank by Anne Frank The book is a true story about a thirteen year old girl who receives a diary on her thirteenth birthday. The book is a short autobiography In her diary Anne tells Kitty (her pretend friend) everything that happens in her life. The interesting factor in the book is that the time of AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s preteen years is the time of the rise of Hitler who oppressed the Jews. AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s family is forced into hiding into a secret apartment on top of a factory store in which one of the FrankÃ¢â¬â¢s friends works. Meep, the friend brings food up to the Franks. Anne and her family stay in hiding for four years. Just when the Franks are almost ready to leave a man working in the factory rats the Franks out to the Nazis. AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s diary begins on her thirteenth birthday and ends shortly after her fifteenth .In the book she writes of her friendships with other girls and her performance in school. The school Anne goes to is called the Lycelium for Jews. Anne also has a sister. Her name is Margot. Margot is 17 years old and very mature. Anne gets along well with her sister. Her father comes from a wealthy family. Anne gets along nicely with him. AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s mother is not spoken of too much in the book., mostly because she does not have a good relationship with her. When Hitler was first taking power the Jews were forced into all Jewish schools. It was there that Anne met a good friend. Her name was Joy. Anne and Joy became friends but only for a short while before Anne was forced into hiding. Anne and her family hid from the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s for two and a half years. The Franks stayed with three other people. They had a woman named Meep bring food to them. The rise of Hitler grew worse as the years passed. The Nazis were then taking Jews to camps where they would kill them. The Franks got into many arguments with the people in the house and Anne was between it all. During this time Anne was beginning to like one of the boys she was staying with in the house.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Why be moral: A Purpose to Life In our culture, many people are asking the same questions. What makes me better than you? Who says I have to treat you that way? Why does America think it is better than any other country? All of these questions arise from the same question: what are morals? This questions leads to another relevant question: why be moral? What, if anything, makes man (in this paper, I will use the word man in a generic sense meaning the entire human race) a moral creature and thus makes him responsible? However, is there any way we can really know that there are certain inherent laws which govern man, and behind these laws is there a Lawgiver that holds men accountable to these laws? I believe that all these questions can be answered through careful observation and logical thinking. Let us first look at the one thing we know for sure and that is man. We can know this for sure because we are men so we would know how we act. When we associate with others, we do so with some rules of fairness in mind. We treat others in a certain way and expect them to treat us in the same way or we say it is Ã¢â¬Å"unfairÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"selfish.Ã¢â¬ We just expect the other person to know that such an act is wrong and that they must play by the same rules that we are. Why do we expect this though? They did not grow up the same way you did. They were not raised by the same parents or even in the same household. So why should one expect them to know the same rules of fairness that you know. If the only basis for your assumption that they should know the rules is because you think the rules are right, then you have no reason to expect them to act that way. However, the other person does indeed know these rule... ...belong to us, we might as well be able to steal because there would be no reason not to. If there was no lawgiver there would be no law, but there obviously is this governing law in men that compels them to do certain things and not do others. If there were not consequences for these actions, anything would basically be moral right. If there was not a being behind the law to enforce it, there would be absolutely no real right or wrong. Everything would be relative, but it is not. There are things that everyone agrees are absolutely good, and absolutely bad. There is no other way around it. The lawgiver has given man a purpose and a reason for life, and it is manÃ¢â¬â¢s moral obligation to fulfill that purpose by upholding the law given him. Works Cited / Consulted Lewis C.S. Mere Christianity. New York, New York. Macmillan Publishing Company. 1943. pp 17-39.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Roles and Responsibilities of Industrial Safety and Security Officers Safety and security in the industrial setting are elements that are required for the safety of the plant, its staff, and the public in the surrounding area. As a constantly evolving process, the use of safety and security officers is also paramount in the enforcement of policies and procedures to decrease or eliminate injury or loss. Safety and security personnel are Ã¢â¬Å"responsible for enforcing organization rules and regulations concerning security and safety,Ã¢â¬ (Fisher & Green, 2004). Each organization has its own rules, regulations, policies, and code of conduct to protect the staff from hazards such as fire, accidents, product tampering, and possible terrorist attacks. Local, state and federal regulations are also included in these policies to increase and maintain the safety of the staff and public. Another role of safety and security personnel involves Ã¢â¬Å"developing measures and action plans for the preventing and responding to cases related to fires, industrial accidents, natural disasters, theft, vandalism and medical emergencies,Ã¢â¬ (Fisher & Green, 2004). The safety and security staff are responsible for consulting a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s best policies and procedures to create and enact standards to prevent the above mentioned threats. Safety and security personnel are also expected to, Ã¢â¬Å"gather intelligence information that would assist in anticipating the occurrence of any threat to organizational safety and security,Ã¢â¬ (International Foundation for Protection Officers, 2003). This would allow the security and safety staff to adequately respond to industrial accidents such as fire or breach of security and ensure the proper emergency services are notified. Maintaining OSHA and EPA Regulations A compliance assistant who works for OSHA states, Ã¢â¬Å"the most cited violations are fall protection, hazard communication, respiratory protection, control of hazardous energy, powered industrial trucks, ladders, electrical wiring, industrial machines and improperly guarded floors and wall openings,Ã¢â¬ (Spencer ,2013). Before OSHA was created in 1970, work related accidents accounted for more than 14,000 deaths of employees and staff. Nearly two and a half million workers were disabled and new cases of occupational diseases totaled three hundred thousand. With the creation of OSHA pressure on most organizations increased to provide a safer workplace for employees except some self employed individuals, farmers, and government employees. Management is obligated to provide the needed resources and funding for OSHA and EPA program implementation. This allows the personnel chosen by management the authority to maintain and enforce all needed safety regulations in the workplace. Normally a safety officer, this individual finds, prevents, or controls hazards as well as training and educating employees in OSHA and EPA regulations and policies. The easiest way to enforce regulations and policies in any organization is to enact and enforce them in the beginning of operations. Safety officers must then maintain an open line of communication with OSHA and EPA inspectors to maintain standards and note changes in regulations and provisions. Allowing an open door policy with employees is also beneficial as violations can be noted and employees can be trained and informed of changes. According to Spencer (2013), Ã¢â¬Å"That for every one dollar spent on safety and health, businesses get at least four dollars back Ã¢â¬â and sometimes as much as a ten dollar return on investment.Ã¢â¬ While the task of enforcing OSHA and EPA regulations and provisions may seem impossible, properly maintaining reports and record keeping can make passing inspections easier and less daunting. In order to meet or exceed the minimum requirements of OSHA and the EPA, following the set order of compliance allows the ability to keep employees safe. Ã¢â¬Å"By January 1, 1991, and by the beginning of each succeeding fiscal year, EPA and OSHA will develop an annual work plan to identify and define the priorities to be addressed during the year. This work plan will include an identification of specific types of facilities to be jointly addressed during the year,Ã¢â¬ (EPA/OSHA, 1991). Emergency Response When dealing with incidents that threaten the plant or employees such as fire, chemical release, or natural disasters unique challenges are created. These normally require the assistance of local, state, and federal government agencies that demand a centralized command structure. Founded in 2003 as a response to errors in the Ã¢â¬Å"KatrinaÃ¢â¬ disaster, the National Incident Management System (NIMS) is a system that provides the ability for local, state, and federal agencies the ability to work together regardless of the size or complexity of a disaster, (Kirkwood,2011). Using the Incident Command System (ICS), the working characteristics, interactive managing and mechanisms, and construction of occurrence management and disaster response associations engaged throughout the life cycle of an incident are defined. Initially, the first step of the response is to evaluate the total scope of the incident by continually determining the type of hazard as well as estimates of possible damage to the environment, critical systems, life, and property. After these questions are answered the next step, an action plan, is created. The second step requires local, state, and federal agencies to create an action plan that is based on the response plans of the independent agencies and each agency takes responsibility for a different part of the action plan. The plan is then deployed after it is developed with each agency providing their assets to the task at hand and is guided by the unified chain of command through the ICS and the Incident Commander. The Incident Commanders main responsibility is to ensure the incident is handled safely, efficiently, and effectively to minimize injury, death, and so a favorable outcome can be achieved. In the occurrence of a disaster, the incident commander has activated five functional areas of the incident command system: 1. Command 2. Operations 3. Planning 4. Logistics 5. Finance/Administration Each of these functional areas performs specific duties working together as required by the National Incident Management System and report to the incident commander. Operations take the responsibility of managing theÃ tactical operations of the incident and they direct their activities towards reducing the hazard, saving lives and property, establishing control of the situation, and restoring normal conditions. Agencies such as Ã¢â¬Å"fire, police, public health, public works, and emergency services all working together,Ã¢â¬ (Homeland security, 2004), comprise this section. Planning is responsible for the collecting, evaluating, and disseminating tactical information pertaining to the incident. This section maintains control of the personnel, facilities, supplies and equipment used during the incident and keeps track of all resources available as well as knowing where all groups are assigned. All arriving personnel check in with this department so that they may be properly assigned and accounted for. Logistics receives all requests for resources needed for the incident and orders the needed equipment such as supplies, food services, communications, transportation, and medical services as required. The facilities unit Ã¢â¬Å"sets up and maintains all facilities needed during the incident such as places to sleep, food and water service, showers and sanitation. Portable toilets, lighting units and shower facilities are included in the facilities unitsÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibilities during the incident,Ã¢â¬ (Homeland security, 2004). The communications units duties are to make the Ã¢â¬Å"most effective use of the communications equipment and facilities assigned to the incident, installs and tests all communications equipment,Ã¢â¬ (Homeland security, 2004). Communications is responsible for issuing and recovering any communication equipment assigned to the personnel working the incident as well as maintaining and repairing the equipment as needed. The need for communications during any incident is of paramount importance when dealing with any hazard or incident response. Food services are responsible for controlling the feeding of all incident response personnel and arrange services to do so. The medical unitsÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibility is to control any medical care that must be performed when incident personnel are injured or harmed in their duties. The finance/administration department is responsible for controlling costs and also for the administration of the different departments during an incident response. Disaster Response and Continuity Plan In the event of an incident or disaster and the possible impact to employees and the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s health and safety, external agencies may be required to assist in lessening the effect of injuries or death. Using the National Incident Management System and the Incident Command System to successfully integrate external organizations into the plan or process is paramount depending on the incidents severity. Event integration of the incident command system begins at notification and, once outside agencies are notified, getting the authority that has jurisdiction to a specific location is the first requirement. This requires providing clear specific information about the event and then developing the incident command structure with clearly defined roles and responsibilities for each responding agency whether local, state, or federal. Depending on the incident and the possible impact to employees and the public, the organization needs to integrate the National Incident Management System into their disaster response plans in a systematic and proactive approach. NIMS provides organizations with assistance agreements and mutual aid agreement templates when incidents occur as well to assist in recovery. Following NIMS guidelines before an incident occurs also assists in preparing and organizing for vulnerabilities the organization may face. The main aspect of any business continuity plan is to effectively allow the organization to survive and mitigate any losses and should be the number one priority. The second should be the collection and security of all business related data and materials. This can be achieved through preparing hard copies of the data, having data stored on offsite devices, and storing data on devices protected from outside environments. Materials and orders also need to be tracked effectively so that in the event of an incident, the organization does not suffer further loss. It is also advisable to have secondary locations to use in the event of an incident or natural disaster. This would allow the organization to maintain operations or to regain operations quicker with lower loss of income. References Fisher R. & Green G (2004). Introduction to Security. Butterworth- Heinemann Publisher Homeland security. (2004, March 1). National incident management system [PDF ]. Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/dhs/nims.pdf International Foundation for Protection Officers (2003). Protection Officer Training Manual. USA, Butterworth Publishers Kirkwood S. (2011). NIMs and ICS: From Compliance to Competence. Retrieved from http://www.emsworld.com/print/EMS-World/NIMS-and-ICSÃ¢â¬âFrom-Compliance-to- Competence/1$7052 Spencer, J.R. (2013). OSHA inspection prep: Have a plan ready when inspectors come knocking. New York, NY: Headline News. MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION AND THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY OFFICE OF ENFORCEMENT (02/13/1991, EPA/OSHA) Section III Article A Paragraph 2 https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_id=238&p_table=mou
Ida denim Orlando, an American of Italian descent was innate(p) in 1926. She received her c are for lambskin from New York Medical College, Lower fifth part Avenue Hospital, School of breast feeding, her BS in nursing from St. Johns University, Brooklyn, NY, and her MA in mental health nursing from Teachers College, Columbia University, New York. Orlando was an Associate prof at Yale School of halt where she was theatre commitor of the Graduate Program in affable health Psychiatric Nursing. term at Yale she was project investigator of a depicted object Institute of Mental Health assignment en title Integration of Mental Health Concepts in a Basic Nursing Curriculum. It was from this explore that Orlando developed her concept which was make in her 1961 book, The Dynamic Nurse-Patient Relationship. She merelyed the development of her abstractive concept when at McLean Hospital in Belmont, MA as Director of a Research Project Two Systems of Nursing in a Psychiatric Hospita l. The results of this research are contained in her 1972 book titled The Discipline and Teaching of Nursing System.Orlando held sundry(a) positions in the Boston area, was a display panel member of Harvard Community Health Plan, and served as both a national and ecumenical consultant. She is a frequent lecturer and conducted many seminars on nursing mechanisms. Orlandos surmise was developed in the late mid-fifties from observations she recorded between a hold up and enduring. Despite her efforts, she was only able to categorise the records as redeeming(prenominal) or badly nursing. It therefore dawned on her that both the systema skeletaleulations for good and bad nursing were contained in the records.The function of the accommodate is to find pop and advert the endurings flying take away for help. From these observations she formulated the deliberative nursing process. The Metaparadigm Concepts let in Human/Person An individual in need Health No curtail defi nition Society/Environment No restricted definition Nursing A distinctive profession Providing direct service to individuals in whatever setting they are found for he purpose of avoiding, relieving, diminishing, or curing the individuals grit of helplessnessThe affected roles presenting appearance may be a defense for help, however, the help needed may not be what it shows to be. Therefore, nurses need to uptake their perception, thoughts or so the perception, or the purporting engendered from their perceptions to explore with longanimouss the sum of their behavior. This process helps the nurse find out the nature of the distress and what help the patient requirements. Orlandos system remains wizard the of the most effective practice theories available. The theatrical role of her theory helps keeps the nurses focalisation on the patient.The strength of the theory is that it is clear, concise, and easier to use. While providing the overall framework for nursing, the u se of her theory does not exclude nurses from making use of other theories while caring for the patient. When exploitation Orlandos theory, the nurse identifies her own perceptions, thoughts, and feelings virtually the patients behaviors, then confirms them with the patient. She then formulates deliberative nursing actions to meet direct patient needs. As a final exam step, the nurse verifies whether or not she met the patients needs and decreased his distress, and determines if further action is required.The theory merges competent nursing practice and customer satisfaction. A capitulum such as how can unmatchable be helped? This clarifies the nurses assumptions near patient needs and minimizes resource maltreatment. The nurse concentrates on relieving patient distress. Interventions address the patients requirements from the patients perspective. Orlandos patient-focused theory gives nurses a lucid, consistent approach. Its interpersonal, straightforward, and applicable to bo th simple and interlocking situations.Nurses can apply the theory severally or as an entire department. When nurse leaders initiate the theorys use in their departments, nurses are wedded a tool to satisfy patients and themselves. This, in turn, satisfies organizational and staff by providing memory board goals. Because nurses can use the method withal with time, energy, and financial constraints, they can minimize foiling associated with doing more with less. Also, nurses feel rewarded when they can rediscover their unique contribution to patient consider-meeting the patients immediate needs.Cost-effective interventions manage using this theory add evaluate to nursing assistance at a time when its difficult to step-up time with patients. Nurses can maximize their time, creating incantation moments with patients and providing the best intercession. They can meet immediate patient needs, reduce patient distress, and feel empowered and contended. In all, these concepts by O rlando form the basis for providing nurses an opportunity to understand their birth with their patients in a better way, so as to give patient care a new and whole hearted meaning.